What is adenomyosis?
Adenomyosis is a disease that occurs when the cells that normally line the uterus grow into the muscular tissue of the uterine wall. It occurs most often in women older than 30 who have had a full-term pregnancy. It is rare in women who have not had a full-term pregnancy.
Adenomyosis does not occur after menopause. But adenomyosis that was present before menopause may be diagnosed after menopause. It may also be found in tissue samples after pelvic surgery in postmenopausal women.
What causes it?
The cause of adenomyosis is not fully understood. Some researchers believe that it is the result of damage to the inner wall of the uterus during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or a surgical procedure.
What are the symptoms?
Most women with adenomyosis do not have any symptoms. Adenomyosis is frequently found in uterine tissue biopsies after pelvic surgery such as laparotomy or laparoscopy has been done. When symptoms are present, they include:
- Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods (menorrhagia).
- Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea).
- Recent onset of menstrual cramping that is gradually getting worse from one period to the next.
How is it diagnosed?
When symptoms occur, the evaluation of suspected adenomyosis may include:
- History of symptoms, menstrual periods, and family history.
- Pelvic exam, which may reveal a large, soft, or tender uterus.
- A sample of the tissue of the wall of the uterus (endometrial biopsy).
- Pelvic ultrasound, which may help tell adenomyosis from other pelvic tumors.
- Hysteroscopy. This test allows the doctor to examine and take samples of the lining of the uterus.
- MRI of the pelvis.
The diagnosis of adenomyosis can be made only after a pathologist examines uterine wall tissue samples. Adenomyosis is often discovered after a hysterectomy.
How is adenomyosis treated?
Most women with adenomyosis do not have any symptoms. When pelvic pain or heavy menstrual bleeding is present, suspected adenomyosis is often successfully treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A hysterectomy may be needed if you have severe symptoms but are not approaching menopause. Symptoms go away after menopause is complete or after hysterectomy.
Current as of: February 11, 2021
Author: Healthwise Staff
Sarah Marshall MD - Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD - Family Medicine
Kevin C. Kiley MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology